Como se faz um filósofo

Como se faz um filósofoComo Se Faz Um Fil Sofo Acompanha O Percurso De Colin McGinn, Filho E Neto De Mineiros, Origin Rio De Blackpool Na Inf Ncia O Melhor Que Poderia Aspirar Seria A Uma Carreira Na Constru O Civil Ou Como Baterista Num Grupo De Rock Por M, Durante A Adolesc Ncia Descobre Descartes E Apaixona Se Pela Filosofia Sendo O Primeiro Da Sua Fam Lia A Ingressar Na Universidade, A Escolha Da Filosofia N O Era A Mais Bvia Ou A Mais Bem Aceite E Assim Come A Pela Psicologia Posteriormente Decide Se Em Definitivo Por Aquela, Tendo De Enfrentar A Perplexidade Dos Pais E Da Fam Lia O Que Faz Um Fil Sofo Como Vive De Que Se Sustenta Desde A Inf Ncia Em Inglaterra At Partida Para A Am Rica McGinn Guia Nos De Forma Apaixonante Pelo Que Foi A Evolu O Do Seu Pensamento E A Sua Matura O Como Fil Sofo Apresenta Uma Perspectiva Contempor Nea Das Grandes Figuras Da Filosofia Do S Culo XX, Incluindo Bertrand Russell, Jean Paul Sartre, Noam Chomsky, Entre Outros , Conta As Hist Rias Dos Professores Que O Marcaram, As Suas Aventuras Com Os Jogos De V Deo, O Seu Gosto Pelo Mar, Os Seus Breves Encontros Com Jennifer Anniston Ou Spielberg, Sempre Numa Prosa Elegante, Clara E AcutilanteDos Estudantes De Filosofia Ao Leitor Comum, Todos Se Deixar O Prender Pela Vivacidade Das P Ginas Escritas Por McGinn Escrito De Forma Brilhante, Profundamente Honesto, Frequentemente Divertido Este Livro Revela A Hist Ria Pessoal De McGinn, T O Fascinante Quanto A Sua Carreira Do Fil Sofo Oliver Sacks You know, any mate of Jonathan Miller s is a mate of mine And it is worse than that, the cover of this book has quotes with the highest praise from both Oliver Sacks and Stephen Pinker This bastard knows people I can only dream of knowing Worse, they are even prepared to say incredibly nice things about him I ve no idea if I should love him or hate him.I couldn t have come to a book with higher expectations Miller interviews McGinn in his utterly masterful The Atheist Tapes and A Brief Hist You know, any mate of Jonathan Miller s is a mate of mine And it is worse than that, the cover of this book has quotes with the highest praise from both Oliver Sacks and Stephen Pinker This bastard knows people I can only dream of knowing Worse, they are even prepared to say incredibly nice things about him I ve no idea if I should love him or hate him.I couldn t have come to a book with higher expectations Miller interviews McGinn in his utterly masterful The Atheist Tapes and A Brief History of Disbelief There are few people I would be prepared to prostrate myself before but Miller is one of them I mean, not only would this guy be one of my heroes just for his religious beliefs or lack there of , but he directs plays of Shakespeare, operas, does documentaries on the human body, and was one of the original members of Beyond the Fringe as someone once said, once you re finished with your life, do you mind if I have a go And McGinn was one of the highlights of Miller s Atheism documentaries Their conversations were really remarkably interesting You know you are waiting for it you want me to say this book is crap Well, it sort of was, but not totally I think it was a book that didn t quite know what it wanted to be I would have said it was a complete waste of publication if it wasn t for the last 50 or so pages.This is a book that is trying to be an autobiography and a kind of introduction to the problems that have fascinated a particular philosopher Look, I ve an undergraduate degree in Philosophy, so I m going to find this sort of thing interesting, even if other people would find it as dull as dish water, but even I had troubles There was a time when I thought I would quite like to become a philosopher admittedly before I first read Plato s Gorgias and began to question the entire philosophical project despite this being the opposite of the message of the Plato s dialogue If only Plato had answered Callicles s concerns as well as he had stated them I would have liked eitherdetail on McGinn s life ordetail on his philosophy The whole thing left me oddly unsatisfied I think this is because I can say so little about either his life or his philosophy I know, this doesn t make much sense, but all the same, I came away really quite liking him as a person, but so be it.You know, I can t even tell you if McGinn is straight or gay Now, what sort of autobiography leaves that an open question A pretty hopeless one, I would have to say.I was very nearly going to give up on this book, but towards the end there is a wonderful bit where he talks about his fight with Daniel Dennett of Consciousness Explained fame and I was totally fascinated But he doesn t explain enough of the philosophy to let me understand or for this whole part to be really as interesting as it ought to be I know, I m not begin clear, so let me explain.McGinn claims in this book that he has had a very original insight into the nature of the mind body problem and that that insight has upset a lot of philosophers The mind body problem comes from Descartes remember at high school, you had to draw graphs on X and Y planes Well they are called Cartesian planes and were named after my mate Descartes Descartes is famous for saying I think therefore I am I don t want to get too side tracked, as I need to talk about Kant in a minute too, but saying this most famous of quotes also contains his major contribution to Western Philosophy the mind body split Descartes held that what is mind is not body and what is body is not mind I think it is pretty close to Philosophy s greatest mistake Oh, if only there was space to explain and there could be an end to dualism Kant is the first modern philosopher this is as close to a heresy as I m capable of uttering as by saying this I have to ignore my dear, incomparable Hume but Kant is a modern philosopher in a very odd sense one who was trying to resurrect Aristotle rather him than JC although given Kant s religious allegiances, perhaps both Anyway, Kant was fascinated with one question in particular Up until him philosophy was in a bit of a quandary there were two sides, Empiricism everything that comes into our minds is first in our senses and Rationalism oh, I don t know, with our thoughts we make the world Anyway, Kant wanted to end this increasingly pointless split in philosophy And he did so by asking if our brains were actually up to the task of understanding the world therebyor less creating dualism.His greatest work is called, A Critique of Pure Reason and it seeks to find out if the human brain is up to the task of understanding the world His answer is that we simply can t understand the world as it is in itself This is referred to as the unknowability of the thing in itself We understand the world as humans , but we can t understand the world as it really, really is This is seen by many people as Kant s major contribution to Philosophy It is the birth place of much of modern philosophy I would be unkind enough to say that Nietzsche, Wittgenstein, the whole of Existentialism and even James, Dewey and the Instrumentalists can t be understood at all without understanding Kant on this point You know, that doesn t leave a lot of modern philosophy I m trying to stress that this is a pretty important point.I would go so far as to say that Hegel s critique of this point missed the point of how important it would later be Hegel thought he killed off the unknowability of the thing in itself in his introduction to his Science of Logic but that was not to be.So, when McGinn says his greatest contribution to modern philosophy is that he questioned whether our brains are up to the task of ever understanding the world well, you know, Kant had already settled that question three hundred years ago.I can only assume that I ve not understood what McGinn is saying here Look, I m pretty thick I know I come across as a pretty articulate kind of guy but really, most of it is bluff I know I really know nothing about these things and that it is easy to know infinitelythan I do but it really annoys me when I m trying to follow something and then someone claims something that is muchthan I know they ought to.This sounds like I disliked this book muchthan I did I actually really liked McGinn after reading this, I thought he was really a nice sort of person and I thought his interaction with Anthony Hopkins was inspired but he has left me wantingI guess I ll need to read one of his real books now An interesting intellectual journey with Colin McGinn, as he recounts his love and pursuit of all things philosophical I learned some of the fundamentals of modern philosophical thought along the way and found out that Daniel C Dennett and Colin McGinn differ greatly in their assessment of the conscious mind McGinn believes that the secret behind how the mind and body work together will forever remain a mystery Dennett believes in our ability to solve life s great mysteries The book is a q An interesting intellectual journey with Colin McGinn, as he recounts his love and pursuit of all things philosophical I learned some of the fundamentals of modern philosophical thought along the way and found out that Daniel C Dennett and Colin McGinn differ greatly in their assessment of the conscious mind McGinn believes that the secret behind how the mind and body work together will forever remain a mystery Dennett believes in our ability to solve life s great mysteries The book is a quick read as it follows McGinn s teaching career, and the various papers and books he wrote along the way My commencement into the world of philosophy, came by way of a book my brother once gave to me, leftover from one of his college freshman courses A book by the philosopher James Rachels, The Elements of Moral Philosophy.Rachels was an American philosopher who specialized in ethics and animal rights and who s arguments persuaded me, for a time at least, to even adopt vegetarianism for myself.As I pondered the questions Rachels asked of his readers, I became alive, I believe, intellectually, for My commencement into the world of philosophy, came by way of a book my brother once gave to me, leftover from one of his college freshman courses A book by the philosopher James Rachels, The Elements of Moral Philosophy.Rachels was an American philosopher who specialized in ethics and animal rights and who s arguments persuaded me, for a time at least, to even adopt vegetarianism for myself.As I pondered the questions Rachels asked of his readers, I became alive, I believe, intellectually, for the first time I was absolutely on fire with philosophy from that point on And I ve read innumerable books dedicated to the subject since then But I will always remember and cherish Rachels book as one of the first, and certainly among the few, books that has made a lifelong impact.I first became aware of Colin Mcginn, however, back around 2004 when he was featured on the BBC documentary series, The Atheism Tapes with Jonathan Miller Actually that s also how I have been introduced to a number of great thinkers, through one documentary series or another.In The Making of a Philosopher, Mcginn touches upon some of themajor strands of what is, I have heard referred to, rather crudely, as, analytical philosophy, be it language, the meaning of meaning, the mind, the body where one starts and the other finishes , the Subject, the Object, Phenomena, the Thing in Itself, primary and secondary properties, mathematics and logic, ethical judgments, and all that senselessness Which makes this is a good read for the non specialist interested in why a philosopher might want to become a philosopher and spend their years pondering, why there is something rather than nothing.As McGinn makes it clear up front, this autobiography focuses on his intellectual life rather than his personal life And as someone who once considered a career in academic philosophy themselves, I found this book to offer a fascinating insider s perspective, even if it mainly represents the perspective of one man McGinn also has an enviable ability to summarize and explain even the most obtuse of ideas, Saul Kripke and Donald Davidson s work certainly falls under that category, making the book fascinating as well as interesting But I did find Mcginn s tone to be a little off putting at times the isn t it amazing and me just an ordinary sort of chap inflections, ad nauseam, strike the ear as a bit self satisfied and pompous But, you shouldn t mistake my meaning here, as Wittgenstein himself said, language can be tricky, especially when it comes to matters of tone and idiom I did very much enjoy McGinn s book But, with that said, and as my own working class Grandmother might have said, he does come across as a bit full of himself The only other problem I had with the book, and it s one other reviewers have had as well, is Mcginn s strict avoidance of any personal information So much of our thinking is influenced by our emotional life and so I thinkdetails about Mcginn s personal life would have added a much needed and important dimension But I respect his decision to devote the book exclusively to his evolution as a philosopher instead.What I did find most striking about the book was Mcginn s conclusion, fully discussed in some of his other books, that the human mind is not equipped to understand the fundamental issues of philosophy, such as the mind body problem, the determinism free will riddle and the nature of consciousness As he puts it, in my bones I felt that there was some deep seated obstacle in our intellectual makeup that prevents us from discovering the missing clue We are suffering from what I called cognitive closure with respect to the mind body problem Just as a dog cannot be expected to solve the problems about space and time and the speed of light that it took a brain like Einstein s to solve, so maybe the human species cannot be expected to understand how the universe contains mind and matter in combination Isn t it really a preposterous overconfidence on our part to think that our species so recent, so contingent, so limited in many ways can nevertheless unlock every secret of the natural world Essentially what Mcginn is saying, is that there are really two sorts of questions problems and mysteries Problems are those questions it is within our capacity to answer, whereas a mystery is a question that falls outside our cognitive space The problem with McGinn s theory, what s been labeled mysterianism or new mysterianism, is that one can never know when it applies If there are things we are constitutionally incapable of understanding, writes Daniel Dennett, then where to draw the line will clearly be one of them, as this would seem to require our being able to stand on both sides of the problem A paradox would be involved where we would know enough about the issue to say that we can never comprehend it Interestingly, however, the philosopher Thomas Nagel also reached a similar conclusion to Mcginn s, in a 2012 book which stated that there is in fact something very obviously missing in our understanding of our own evolution.The term mysterianism is also, actually, incredibly misleading discussing inherent limits of the human mind is a legitimate and indeed much needed concern and I think Mcginn, and others like him, add an important dimension to the emerging study of ignorance and pose serious question marks to the Singularity expectations, put forward by Kurzweil, of humanity constructing a super intelligent AI.Most philosophers today, however, can no longer genuinely tell us anything really meaningful about the world any And even though philosophy may very well be, as Hegel once said, utterly useless and fruitless It is for this very reason, the sublimest of all pursuits, the most deserving of our attention, and the most worthy of our zeal A somewhat Coleridegy assertion to be sure, with a rivulet of deep meaning in a meadow of words But, nevertheless, quit astute I raced through this fascinating introduction to philosophy, written in the form of an intellectual biography of sorts McGinn has an enviable ability to summarise and explain even the most obtuse of ideas and Saul Kripke and Donald Davidson s work certainly comes under that category making it fascinating and interesting I also loved the little anecdotes and bits of self reflection. McGinn, a philosopher at Rutgers, explains what it s like to be a philosopher, and how one ends up becoming a philosopher instead of, say, an accountant Along the way, we find out a thing or two about the philosophical enterprise itself.The author is actually an Englishman who starts at Oxford A dull teen from a working class family, he holds out little academic promise Then one day something seizes him in the form of a question and off he goes into the world of the mind Before you know McGinn, a philosopher at Rutgers, explains what it s like to be a philosopher, and how one ends up becoming a philosopher instead of, say, an accountant Along the way, we find out a thing or two about the philosophical enterprise itself.The author is actually an Englishman who starts at Oxford A dull teen from a working class family, he holds out little academic promise Then one day something seizes him in the form of a question and off he goes into the world of the mind Before you know it, he has made it into Britain s most prestigious philosophy department The book is a biography of that journey.McGinn pursues analytic philosophy, so he writes about subjects that a philosopher of the mind might want to investigate Interestingly, we hear not just his description of topics like intentionality, sense and reference, and idealism versus realism we find out what philosophers themselves are trying to do with these concepts right now The author does an especially good job explaining Sartre s fascinating philosophy of consciousness in a way ordinary readers can understand.But with so many topics to cover, the discussion is often shallow He mentions the brains in a vat thought experiment, and he s delighted by The Matrix Hmmm I was put out by it, the reason being that it sells audiences the impression that they ve become party to a hugely significant and esoteric philosophical discovery So McGinn, while describing BIV for us, offers no resolution to it it just hangs there He handles too many of the questions he takes up the same way, outlining a controversy and then walking away from it A general reader needs muchguidance than that on philosophy For a book aimed at a general readership, this is a weakness.Later on we learn about some of the current trends One is philosophy s interest in cognitive science, the point of view that treats the brain like a computer I found this discussion lacking because it s too trendy Why, for example, don t we instead start thinking about computers along the lines of the way the brain works That s likely the new new thing anyhow.And in ethics, McGinn wonders why philosophy has contributed so little to the actual moral development of the world, despite having the best thinking on the subject My take on it Like brains in a vat, philosophers and the public see the same thing from a vastly different perspective It s this difference in perspective that philosophers, including McGinn, can t account for After all, they re philosophers, not members of the public, and their perspective greatly constrains the ability to apply philosophy to real problems McGinn is content to throw questions out there for the sake of the question, like many philosophers As a result, he cannot actually apply, say, a principle of ethics to a real world situation.Along with ethics, the author concludes with a discussion of metaphilosophy and aesthetics This was a muchenjoyable part of the book Did you know, for example, that most readers may have completely misconstrued the moral in Nabakov s Lolita What an idea and now I seriously have to read the book This book is a resource for people looking for new authors and new lines of thought to pursue At its best, The Making of a Philosopher is a tour guide into the subject that suggests a number of paths to pursue further, that points us toward other books The book reads easily, and no great depth of previous training in philosophy is required to understand it All in all, I liked it and recommend it to general readers of the subject I read this book because I am taking a Moral Philosophy course this fall and I have never been exposed to much philosophy fist hand before It was really enjoyable aside from personal tangents the author tended to go of on because it is a personal story that offers a lot of insight into fundamental philosophical concepts It follows one man s experiences through childhood to the present as he questions the world and eventually comes to learn that perhaps we may never know the answers to all of I read this book because I am taking a Moral Philosophy course this fall and I have never been exposed to much philosophy fist hand before It was really enjoyable aside from personal tangents the author tended to go of on because it is a personal story that offers a lot of insight into fundamental philosophical concepts It follows one man s experiences through childhood to the present as he questions the world and eventually comes to learn that perhaps we may never know the answers to all of our questions and maybe that s OK I really wanted to give this a 3.5 I found aspects of it dry, but when he really got talking about his philosophy and not his life, I found myself quite fascinated I may venture to try one of his less memoir y books. this book is pretty damn mind blowinga lot of these concepts i ve encountered at one point or another, but for some reason meeting them at this point in my life is muchimpacting 3.5 stars maybe with fiction I ve been trying to withhold five star ratings, saving them for the truly life altering, affecting or momentous experiences.I m a bitlaxidasical with non fiction ratings.Even so, three stars seems a bit harsh, this book is a clever, engaging read, although the writing can get stiff at times Blame it on the dry subject of the linguistic turn in philosophy But when McGinn turns to the nature of consciousness he really shines.I still feel I m missing an insig 3.5 stars maybe with fiction I ve been trying to withhold five star ratings, saving them for the truly life altering, affecting or momentous experiences.I m a bitlaxidasical with non fiction ratings.Even so, three stars seems a bit harsh, this book is a clever, engaging read, although the writing can get stiff at times Blame it on the dry subject of the linguistic turn in philosophy But when McGinn turns to the nature of consciousness he really shines.I still feel I m missing an insight, just out of reach, when it comes to McGinn s position much like his point about the limitations of what we can possibly know.From what little I ve absorbed about the dualist functionalist debates, I cannot accept anything other than our consciousness mind being nothing but the brain, neurons firing, chemical reactions, physics, and I m puzzled as to why people expect, in that case, to be able to then see the mind in the brain as though it could be mechanically pictured as a bunch of gears whirring, cams turning, sensors and outputs.So, too, the idea that the mind is a type of extremely advanced computer just another laughable example of how technological material contingency conditions thought.Anyway I look forward to reading McGinn s The Mysterious Flame , recently recommended by the Partially Examined Life dudes, sitting on my to read shelf for about fifteen years now. This is the story of a person who gets a good break, lives up to the opportunity and does well for himself afterwords It s not particularly dramatic McGinn isn t exactly a prose stylist either, telling simple tales simply with the barest details possible.His easy framing of philosophical problems could be useful, but it seems unlikely anyone unfamiliar with them would pick up this book The smooth introduction to the New Mysterians is good and for that, I added one star.