Fortress Conservation

Fortress Conservation[Epub] ➜ Fortress Conservation Author Dan Brockington – This work challenges the vision of Africa's environment history and society which drives conservation across the continent The author argues that this vision has been harmful unjust and unnecessary in This work challenges the vision of Africa's environment history and society which drives conservation across the continent The author argues that this vision has been harmful unjust and unnecessary in its effects on the people of the Mkomazi Game Reserve in Tanzania. Fortress Conservation is the hesitant bookish counterpart to Jim Igoe's firebrand Conservation and Globalization Where Igoe asserts in no uncertain terms that national parks have excluded human communities to no legitimate end Brockington just systematically casts doubt on each of the claims supporting the creation of Mkomazi National Park Brockington is a very cautious thinker and since most of his data is euivocal it is not a strongly convincing book This is a point in his favor since this is a very complicated issue and it's by no means clear that either pole Igoe or the conservationists are right Igoe blames degradation of biodiversity on the poverty desperation and concentration of pastoralists evicted from the parks and excluded from crucial water resources inside This is clearly a real thing Maasai would never stoop to agriculture if they didn't need to especially since their land is so marginal for it and climate change only explains so much of that But a lot of the agricultural intensification threatening wildlife is caused by commercial agriculture by growing populations of non pastoralist groups who immigrate to areas near parks and by modern agricultural chemicals It's definitely ambiguous how much the new extreme Parknon Park land use dichotomy is due to exclusion meaning the parks are unjustified and how much they are due to external factors in which case the parks are crucial Brockington marshals his kind of weak evidence against each claim that pastoralists degrade environments that Parakuyo pastoralists were native to Mkomazi and Maasai are invaders and that Mkomazi is an important hub of biodiversity This last rankled me To some extent I see his point To save endemic species and high density biodiversity it would be much cost effective to kick people out of land in the Eastern Usambara mountains And it's definitely not unthinkable that Mkomazi's biodiversity is protected because it is so much charismatic and picturesue than the richer diversity in the montane forests But to suggest that Mkomazi doesn't deserve to be conserved because it has a lower biodiversity count and its species aren't uniue is an offensive reductionism The place has an intrinsic value independent of its utility as a repository of speciesBut all that aside Brockington and Igoe make a bunch of great points about the politics and economics of conservation Conservation is a business and its execution has come to be determined far too much by funders and far too little by what gets results The tourism side of conservation can be an important source of relatively sustainable revenue for development but it is driven by the desires of foreigners and thus their myths can be writ on landscapes already home to others and puts much of its money in the pockets of capitalists and corrupt government officials Parks create tremendous costs for nearby communities elephants destroy crops wildlife and bush harbor tsetse and their deadly diseases and the resources of the park become off limits Only very marginal and insufficient efforts to compensate communities using tourism revenues have been made and none are remotely comparable with the costs incurredMkomazi shows that it can be well nigh impossible for benefits from protected areas to match the costs incurred from lost resources Mkomazi underlines an essential ineuality in African conservation The opportunity costs of protecting areas are borne by the rural poor while the benefits accrue to national elites and wealthy foreign tourists Many rural groups know conservation policy as something that brings little good they can enjoy and causes much hardship and sufferingThe conclusions Brockington draws are incomparable among what might be considered activism academia for their restraint and respect for the complicated possibilities involved He suggests that pastoralists must be allowed to use the Reserve's resources than they are now Not all users should be allowed access however and not all uses should be permitted those who are allowed He notes that It is also dangerous to deny that degradation by pastoralists could occur; it is necessary to respect the precautionary principles that guard against degradation So while he is not advocating complete removal of the park boundaries he is arguing that such a drastic and harmful step as total exclusion should not be carried out before thorough and cautious science has demonstrated the dangers of landuse practices with a very long history in this area I found Fortress Conservation to be a good read It gave a fascinating insight into conservation practices throughout Africa and the idea of ‘fortress conservation’ It was amazingly useful for my BA Hons thesis – focusing on conservation in Australia The idea that fortress conservation is a ‘white man’s practice’ was fascinating to me Although I did find some of his writing a little too academic and dry in places hence the lower rating I would recommend this book to others interested in conservation thoughThis book raised a lot of complex issues – it wasn’t just about conserving the natural world Brockington also investigated the cultural and social significance of this Add in aspects of the conservation on colonialism and I walked away from this book with a LOT of thoughts running through my headNot the book for everyone but definitely worth a read if you have any interest in Africa conservation or just the issues of the modern political and social climate

Hardcover  ¿ Fortress Conservation PDF ¼
  • Hardcover
  • 196 pages
  • Fortress Conservation
  • Dan Brockington
  • English
  • 27 January 2016
  • 9780852554180