Dostoïevski, du double à l'unité

Dostoïevski, du double à l'unité[Epub] ❦ Dostoïevski, du double à l'unité By René Girard – In a fascinating analysis of critical themes in Feodor Dostoevsky’s work René Girard explores the implications of the Russian author’s “underground” a site of isolation alienation and resentm In a fascinating analysis of critical themes in double à PDF ↠ Feodor Dostoevsky’s work René Girard explores the implications of the Russian author’s “underground” a site of isolation alienation and resentment Brilliantly translated this book is a testament to Girard’s remarkable engagement with Dostoevsky’s work through which he discusses numerous aspects of the human condition including desire which Girard argues is “triangular” or “mimetic”—copied from models or mediators whose objects of desire become our own Girard’s interdisciplinary approach allows him to shed new light on religion spirituality and redemption in Dostoevsky’s writing culminating in a revelatory discussion of the author’s spiritual Dostoïevski, du PDF/EPUB or understanding and personal integration Resurrection is an essential and thought provoking companion to Dostoevsky’s Notes from the Underground. Dostoyevski ve karakterlerinin iyi bir analizini içeriyor Bana yazarı anlamak adına önemli bir bakış sağladı Dostoyevski’yi okumuş olanlara önereceğim mükemmel bir analiz kitabı Hem yazarı hem eserlerini ve kahramanlarını farklı bir yönden anlatmış Doğrusu okuduğum Dostoyevski eserlerini bir daha okumam gerekiyor özellikle “Budala” ve “İnsancıklar”ı Yazarın dehasını kabul eden Rene Girard onun temelde iki farklı kişilik yazarlıkta olmasında yazar ve eleştirmen Bielinski’nin nasıl etkilediğini inandırıcı bir şekilde anlatıyor Felsefik ve psikolojik çözümlemeleri çok ilgi çekici Çeviride dalınç saltık dağdağa izlek anıştırma esriklik gibi kelimelerin sıklıkla kullanılması okumamı zorlaştırdı Dostoyevski okumak isteyenlerin spoiler vermesi nedeniyle uzak durması gereken bir kitap ancak yazarın birkaç eserini okuduktan sonra bu kitabı da okumanızı öneririm Uno dei saggi più utili che abbia letto sino ad ora sulle opere di Dostoevskij Segue una impostazione cronologica di interpretazione delle sue opere dalle origini Povera Gente e il Sosia al capolavoro incredibile che è i Fratelli Karamazov affrontando i personaggi e le loro azioni in chiave psicanalitica Non è sempre corretto analizzare un autore guardando ai suoi personaggi ma di certo alcune osservazioni su Dostoevskij a parer mio sono davvero coerenti con la sua biografia e la realtà in cui visse Per uesto credo sia un saggio che forza poco e nulla l'interpretazione dei romanzi e anzi ne mostra il volto reale il rapporto con l'orgoglio con il rancore del sottosuolo con il terrore di non essere mai all'altezza con la figura da mitizzare e distruggere del doppio Tante riflessioni e tanto materiale per chi ama le opere di Dostoevskij Ci tengo a precisare che il saggio per sua natura contiene spoiler di tutti i romanzi ergo andrebbe letto a seguito del recupero dell'opera omnia The theme of the double is present in all the works of Dostoevsky in the most diverse and sometimes most hidden forms Its extensions are so many and ramified that they will not appear to us except little by little 6And this is what Girard does—he makes the double in Dostoevsky appear and reappear through a close examination of the writer's works and lifeA proper review will follow when I have time Con uesto libro ho capito il mio problema Il sottosuolo è l'inferno Girard's take on literary masterpieces is different from that of most other literary critics because of his discernment of mimetic desire fueling the plots and character development of novels Dostoevsky is the greatest genius of all in this understanding well along with Shakespeare Anyone interested in Dostoevsky will profit from grappling with Girard's take For my own comments on Brothers Karamazov introduction to Girard's thought see my article Violence and the Kingdom of God on my blog at Há neste livro muito do ue já foi ponderado em Mentira Romântica e Verdade Romanesca MRVR Contudo o foco exclusivo em Dostoievski é bem interessante e a dialética obra e vida muito bem feita e integrada na teoria miméticaPerde meia estrela apenas pela parte mais teórica da superação mimética pela escatologia em Cristo ue é um salto sem muita explicação e ue está melhor desenvolvida no MRVR In this long form essay Girard traverses Dostoyevsky’s entire oeuvre explaining how each book charted a progression of attempts to come to terms with mankind’s clashing emotions of pride and socio economic impotence Dostoyevsky personifies these feelings best in his protagonist from his early career book “Notes from Underground” Girard adopts the label summarizing these emotions as the “underground” which he likens to Nietzsche’s idea of ressentiment Girard writing in the early 1960’s believes society still held these feelings in his day I expect they are real than ever today as evidenced by books like Pankaj Mishra’s Age of Anger and broadly our current political discourse The underground is a somewhat ambiguous emotional place here’s the most concise definition I could find by GirardUnderground pride strange thing that it is is banal pride The most intense suffering proceeds from the fact that the speaker does not succeed in distinguishing himself concretely from the persons around him Yet he becomes aware of this failure little by little He perceives that he is surrounded by minor bureaucrats who have the same desires and suffer the same failure as he All underground individuals believe they are all the “uniue” to the extent that they are in fact alikeGirard believes that Dostoyevsky intuited this problem early in his career but struggled to overcome these feelings in his own life as well in the lives of his characters through which he was exploring these feelings One popular solution of course is emotional self mastery but Dostoyevsky found this to be ironically self defeating Girard argued that it was a stroke of creative genius for Dostoyevsky to design protagonists for The Idiot and Demons who both fail to escape their own underground in spite of their own uniue forms of self mastery Just what were these failures? The protagonists of The Idiot and Deamons each practice a form of detachment from normal human desires the former in a positive saintly direction and the latter just the opposite Girard marks these escapes fundamentally as failures because they come at the cost alienation from the people around the characters Or as Girard puts it for The Idiot protagonist Myshkin “he affirms his own innocence and transfers all his guilt onto others The ‘detachment’ does not prove that one has conuered one’s own pride; it proves only that one has exchanged slavery for mastery The roles are reversed but the structure of intersubjective relations remains the same”As an interesting aside there’s a moment in this essay that reminded me of an observation Steven King made about writing – that theme and metaphor are oftentimes added later by an author who discovers the opportunity in their characters’ stories Girard has the same blind muse theory about Dostoyevsky sayingDostoevsky is not a philosopher but a novelist He does not create the character of Stavrogin because he formulated for himself intellectually the unity of all the underground phenomena; to the contrary he succeeds in relating this unity because he created the character of StavroginTo the extent that artists philosophers politicians and nonfiction authors are all attempting to find solutions to similar uestions about the human condition it’s interesting to see a consistent theory for how the artist class intuits their approachBut what of the problem of the underground? How does one escape the shackles of society’s judgment conuer their pride but still exercise their will? For Dostoyevsky none of his contemporaries seemed to have a good answer I suppose to steal a line from Holden Caulfield Dostoyevsky just felt like his contemporary Romantic artists were all phonies The Underground protagonist passionately admires the great romantic writers But it is a poisonous balm that these exceptional beings pour on his psychological wounds The great lyrical impulses divert one from what is real without truly liberating for the ambitions they aware are after all terribly mundane The victim of romanticism always becomes and unfit for life while demanding of it things and excessiveWhere else to turn? Can we rebel? Dostoyevsky attempted this as well falling into revolutionary socialist ciercles a new school of thought during his youth that was sweeping through Europe Girard notes that this ended in failure as well for the young author “Rebellion is not bad because it rejects this or that value but because it is as little able to reject these values as to conserve them” Actually Girard doesn’t focus on this chapter of Dostoyevsky’s life much but I think it highlights a crucial lesson It’s very difficult to have a productive idea that one can defend This is actually probably the most alluring motivation for being an orthodox or conservative it’s just not the case that good ideas come around very often I read loads of books about the world that try to explain what’s wrong with some corner of it There are virtually no books that focus on thoroughly explaining a solution In a novelistic denouement that I fear is rarely found in real life Dostoyevsky discovers a solution to his lifetime uestion in his final work The Brothers Karamazov Girard actually focuses his attention on a brief story inside of Karamazov called “The Grand Inuisitor” This is not immediately apparent As Girard puts it The underground appeared in this novel as the failure and reversal of Christianity The wisdom of the redeemer and especially his redemptive power are notably absent Rather than hide his own anxiety from himself Dostoevsky expresses it and gives it an extraordinary fullness He never combats nihilism by fleeing from itBut herein lies the rub The Grand Inuisitor recalls the devil’s three temptations to Jesus in the desert social messianism doubt and pride these are all Dostoyevsky’s temptations And Christ’s response and ultimate message relayed again to the Grand Inuisitor and subseuently Ivan by Alyosha are in Dostoyevsky’s mind the only possible response to these underground temptationsGirard then ties together the core relation between Christianity and Dostoyevsky’s escape from underground “It is the Other whom one must love as oneself if one does not desire to idolize and hate the Other in the depths of the underground It is no longer the golden calf it is this Other who poses the risk of seducing humans in a world committed to the Spirit for better or for worse” I must admit that when I read Karamasov probably ten years ago this idea went right over my head And for good reason What I didn’t understand about the Grand Inuisitor was the very Straussian method Dostoyevsky chose to follow to bury his lesson Roughly here’s the face value lesson as retold by GirardThe Inuisitor does not confuse the message of Christ with the psychological cancer to which it leads by contract to Nietzsche and Freud He therefore doesn’t accuse Christ of having underestimated human nature but of having overestimated it of not having understood that the impossible morality of love necessarily leads to a world of masochism and humiliationHere’s the deeper Straussian meaningDostoyevsky’s contemporaries expected of a Christian novelist some reassuring formulas some simplistic distinctions between good and bad people in a word “religious” art in the ideological sense The art of the later Dostoevsky is terribly ambiguous from the point of view of the sterile oppositions with which the world is filled because it is terribly clear from the spiritual point of view If one says to Dostoevsky that the effect sought is not visible he can only bow This is why Dostoevsky promises to refute the irrefutable without ever following through and this for good reason The power the reason for communicating in this way is the best justification for Straussian reading that I’ve ever come across “This art does not reuire listening to sermons for our era cannot tolerate them It lays aside traditional metaphysics with which nobody or almost nobody can comply Nor does it base itself on reassuring lies but on consciousness of universal idolatry Direct assertion and affirmation is ineffective in contemporary art for it necessarily invokes intolerable chatter about Christian values The legend of the Grand Inuisitor escapes from shameful nihilism and the disgusting insipidity of values The art that emerges in its entirety from the miserable and splendid existence of the writer seeks affirmation beyond negations Dostoevsky does not claim to escape from the underground To the contrary he plunges into it so profoundly that his light comes to him from the other side “It is not as a child that I believe in Christ and confess him It is through the crucible of doubt that my Hosanna has passed Plato too spoke of a protagonist who climbed out of his own literal underground and had trouble sharing what he learned upon return to his own cave Perhaps messages like these must to some extent be codedThis book actually pre dates the mimetic theory that Girard became famous for and my edition comes with a great post script where Girard explains how the Dostoyevskian underground maps to Girard’s mimetic theory I’m looking forward to another book that explores the topic of mimesis thoroughly Bu kısa ve yoğun incelemede Dostoyevksi'yi hayatı ve yazdıklarıyla eşzamanlı gözlemleme fırsatı sunulmuş Daha çok roman penceresinden elbetYarattığı karakterlerin diğer romanlarında farklı isimlerle gelişimini ve bununla birlikte düşüncelerinin tamamlanışını incelemiş yazar Tamamlanış kısmı belki de biraz yeraltı gururu üzerinden ilerlemiş Ve elbette başyapıtı Karamazov Kardeşleri okuyunca bu kanıya varmanın biraz daha kolay olduğu bir gerçek Fakat geriye dönüp diğer romanlarıyla ister istemez bir korelasyon kurunca bir felsefeciden ziyade romancı olarak bilinç ve bilinç dışındakilerinin daha fazlasını sunabileceğine inanmak istiyorsunuz Girard Dosyoveski’nin genel anlamda “yapıt”ını incelemek yerine tek tek eserlerini birkaç teması bağlamında –yeraltı insanı öteki kavramı baba oğul ilişkisi vs kendince yorumluyor ve yazarın yaşamından kesitlerle karşılaştırıyor Dostoyevski’nin yaşamından parçaları magazinsel bir heyecanla tekrarlıyor özellikle eleştirmen Bielinski ile olan saygı nefret ilişkisinde Yazarın ona göre ancak sınırlı sayıda eserde ortaya çıkan dehasını vurguluyor ama bunu nesnel bir analizden ziyade romantik bir naiflikle yapıyor Bana göre okuyucusunu zorlamayan çok derinlikli olmayan bir deneme Kaba bir akademik benzetme yapacak olursam Bahtin’in eseri bir doktora tezi ise Girard’ınki lise dönem ödevi düzeyinde Yine de Dostoyevski’nin dünyasına yüzeysel bir giriş yapmak için faydalı olabilir tabi okuduktan sonra burada öne sürülen fikirleri bellekten silip Dostoyevski’nin eserlerine temiz bir zihinle yaklaşmak şartı ile

Dostoïevski, du double à l'unité MOBI ½ double à
  • Paperback
  • 120 pages
  • Dostoïevski, du double à l'unité
  • René Girard
  • English
  • 14 May 2015
  • 9781611860375